Agricultural machinery field operation quality standards
Heilongjiang Provincial Technical Supervision Bureau released
Foreword This standard is to strengthen the quality management of agricultural machinery field operations, ensure the correct implementation of agricultural technology, according to the "Regulations of Heilongjiang Province Agricultural Machinery Management" to develop the local standards of Heilongjiang Province.
The formulation and publication of this standard is the need for the development of agricultural machinery science and technology, the marketization of agricultural machinery services, and the operation of agricultural machinery to standardize and regulate management.
This standard is a technical basis for measuring and regulating the quality of agricultural machinery operations in the field.
The content of this standard includes the quality standards for 20 operations of the mechanized tillage tube and the 13 methods for the quality inspection of the Appendix.
This standard has the characteristics of clear quality requirements, quantified indicators, and simple operation. It is easy for the agricultural machinery operation quality inspectors and agricultural machinery production personnel to grasp the technical standards that are easy to implement.
This standard is based on the basic rules of GB/T1.1-1993 Standards Work Guide Part 1 : Drafting and presentation of rules.
This standard is proposed by the Standardization Technical Committee of Agricultural Machinery of Heilongjiang Province.
This standard is under the jurisdiction of Heilongjiang Provincial Agricultural Machinery Administration.
This standard was drafted by Heilongjiang Provincial Institute of Agricultural Machinery and Heilongjiang Agricultural Machinery Bureau.
This standard is interpreted by the Heilongjiang Institute of Agricultural Machinery.
Agricultural Machinery Field Operation Quality Standards
1 Scope This standard specifies the quality indicators and corresponding detection methods for 20 operational items such as mechanized tillage and tube collection.
This standard applies to the quality inspection of mechanized tillage harvesting in Heilongjiang Province, and serves as a basis for disputes on the quality of arbitration work.
2 Job Quality Requirements
2.1 The operation of turning the floor is suitable for the undulating operation of wheat, barley, and flax pods, and the operations of turning corn and rice, sorghum, millet, grains and vegetable fields in the fall and in spring.
2.1.1 Depth of cultivation and consistency. The depth of ploughing in autumn and autumn is 16-22cm, and the depth of ploughing in spring is >14cm. The depth of cultivation is the same, and the error is Â±1.5cm.
2.1.2 Farming straightness and cultivator consistency. Tillage straight, 100 meters straightness â‰¤ 15cm; plough the same, the actual width and design width error of Â± 4cm.
2.1.3 Turning and Coverage. The rate of return and return was <5%. Weeds cover >90%.
2.1.4 Ground flatness. Vertical flatness lOcm length within the range of surface roughness â‰¤ lOcm.
2.1.5 No ploughing, no recultivation, recultivation rate â‰¤2%, and the land is ploughed and tidy.
2.1.6 Opening and closing ridge requirements. Opening and closing ridge distance> 40m, ridge width â‰¤ 30cm, depth â‰¤ 15cm. Closed ridge height â‰¤ lOcm.
2.2 The deep loosening operation is applicable to soil deep loosening, deep ridge ploughing, deep ridging, deep ploughing and other loose soil operations.
2.2.1 Depth of cultivation and consistency. The cultivating depth is usually 20-25cm. In addition to cultivating deep plowing, the principle of plowing plow bottom layer, the general plough depth is 25 ~ 30cm; super deep deep plowing depth â‰¥ 30cm, the depth error of each row is Â± 2cm.
2.2.2 Line spacing is the same. There are ridge blocks according to the requirements of ridge spacing, full deep row spacing of 30 ~ 50cm, line spacing error of Â± 2 cm.
2.2.3 deep loose groove chisel shovel width of 4 ~ 6 cm, spade shovel width of about 10cm.
2.3 è€™èŒ¬ The operation is applicable to the shallow soil cultivation of soybeans and wheat pods whose foundations are deep turning or deep loose foundation.
2.3.1 The depth of the radon should reach 14 to 16 cm with an error of Â±1 cm.
2.3.2 The surface is smooth and there is no significant difference in the ridge and furrow after the raft, and the height difference is â‰¤ 3 cm along the vertical direction of sowing on the ground of 4 m width.
2.3.3 Do not miss, not delay. Adjacent operation weight è€™<15cm.
2.4 Rotary ploughing and stubble removal is applicable to shallow tillage of soft field or paddy field in dry land where the former rake is a deep plough or deep foundation.
2.4.1 Depth of cultivation. Rotary tillage 12-15cm in autumn and 8-10cm in spring.
2.4.2 The soil is finely crushed and the ground is flat. The maximum size of the inner clod per square meter in the cultivated layer shall not exceed 5 pieces. The difference between the two levels in the 4m wide ground is â‰¤ 4cm.
2.4.3 Broken roots. The crushing length should be <8 cm, and the passing rate should be >80%.
2.4.4 No ploughing, no hauling. Adjacent operation width of the plot <15cm.
2.5 The ridging operation is applicable to various ridging operations and deep loose ridges.
2.5.1 Ridge straightness. Ridge-shaped straight, 50m ridge length straightness error â‰¤ 5 cm.
2.5.2 The ridge pitch is equal. The ridge width forms a standard ridge shape according to agronomic requirements. The ridge distance error is Â±2cm, and the reciprocating combination ridge distance error is Â±3cm. The ridging work amplitude error is Â±5 cm.
2.5.3 The ridge is uniform and uniform in depth. The depth error of each lofty soil is Â±2cm; the ridge height is the same; after the ridge body is compacted, the ridge height should be â‰¥16cm, and the error of each ridge height is Â±2cm.
2.5.4 The ridge shape is orderly and tidy, and the squat block cannot be used. When the original ridge is deep and loose, the residue and fertilizer should be included.
2.5.5 The land is neat, ridged to the ground, and the heading error is â‰¤30cm.
2.6 The operation of the squatter is suitable for the shallow surface preparation after turning the floor.
2.6.1 deep. To meet the requirements of deep, generally light rake is 8 ~ lOcm, heavy rake is 14 ~ 16cm. The depth error is Â±1 cm.
2.6.2 The soil is finely crushed and the ground is flat. The maximum size of the inner clod per square meter in the cultivated layer shall not exceed 5; in the vertical direction of sowing, in the 4m wide ground, the height difference shall be less than or equal to 3cm.
2.6.3 Do not squat, not delay. Adjacent operation weight â‰¤ 15cm.
2.7 The repression operation is suitable for flat repression and ridge repression before and after sowing.
2.7.1 soil compaction. After repression, the soil layer is 10cm deep and the soil bulk density is 0.9-1.1g/cm3.
2.7.2 No pressure, no delay. Adjacent work width width â‰¤ 30cm.
2.8 The joint operation of tillage and soil preparations is suitable for joint operations such as rotary ploughing, slashing, ridging, repression and deep loosening, fertilization, ridging, and repression.
All operations are performed with reference to relevant quality standards.
2.8.1 Rotary tillage: Perform according to 2.4 of this standard.
2.8.2 deep loose: According to 2.2 of this standard.
2.8.3 Rigging: Performed in accordance with 2.5 of this standard.
2.8.4 Repression: Implemented in accordance with 2.7 of this standard.
2.9 The deep fertilization operation is applicable to all kinds of dry field crops before sowing deep fertilization operations, sowing and fertilization combined operations and rice fertilization operations. Job quality is shown in Table 1.
Quality standard work items Fertilizer depth Fertilizer amount Row width of fertilizer Strip width Covering The depth of fertilization before sowing is 8-12 cm, and the depth is uniform. The sowing amount was accurate, and the error between the actual amount of fertilizer applied and the planned amount of fertilizer was Â±3%. The error of fertilization amount in each row was Â±4%, and there was no leakage or broken bar (drainage was applied at 30 cm was broken bar). When the row spacing is the same, the width error of each row is Â±1.5cm, and the fertilizer width is â‰¥3cm. When planting fertilization and combining operations, a certain thickness of soil isolation layer should be formed between the seed fertilizers, and the interlayer is >3cm. The deep-fertilizer soil coverage of upland crops reached 100%. Requests for cracking or joint operations with fertilization.
Fertilization sowing joint operations wheat: the same depth of sowing.
Soybeans: Lateral fertilization is 5 cm from seed and 3 cm deep. Maize: Seeds 5 to 8 cm deep, or deep side fertilization 4 to 6 cm from seed, depth 5 to 8 cm.
Deep fertilization of rice combined with tillage fertilization, applied to the mud surface 6 ~ 10cm, transplanting while deep fertilization, fertilization 4 ~ 5cm, side 5 ~ 6cm.
2.10 The sowing operation is applicable to the mechanical precision sowing of soybeans, corn, sorghum, millet, wheat and other crops, hole sowing and strip sowing. Job quality is shown in Table 2.
Work items broadcast accuracy accuracy broadcast depth and consistency broadcast straight line spacing equal cover soil repression precision sowing operation soyabean single-grain equidistant on-demand: one point per point, distance equal, single-grain rate â‰¥ 95%, particle distance error Â± 2cm. Maize ridge on the precise amount of seeding: You can carry out the whole plant spacing and half-segment single-grain equidistant on-demand, single-pass rate â‰¥ 90%, particle spacing error Â± 3cm. Leakage rate â‰¤ 0.5%. Under normal circumstances sowing depth: soybean 4 ~ 6cm, corn 5 ~ 6cm, millet 3cm, rice 3 ~ 4cm, broadcast depth error of Â± 1cm, are calculated after sowing the thickness of the soil layer. The 50m long straightness error is Â±5cm. The ridge sowing should be aligned with the ridge center and the deviation is Â±3cm. Line spacing error Â±1cm, inter-table error Â±2cm, unit reciprocating line spacing error Â± 5cm. The cover soil is uniform and tightly exposed. After sowing, the grains should be weighed 2 or 3 times, and the soil volume in the 6cm soil layer after pressing should reach 1.2-1.3g/cm3.
Cave sowing (cluster sowing) operation of soybeans: 18 to 20 cm in diameter, 3 to 4 per hole. Maize: Seed spacing from 0.8 to 1.2 per plant spacing. Each seed sown 2 to 3 seeds, double grain rate> 70%. Millet: 3 to 5 seeds are planted in each of the fine-tune clusters, and the cluster spacing is 8 to 12 cm. Leakage rate â‰¤ 1%.
Drilling operations wheat: The error between the actual broadcast volume and planned broadcast volume is Â±2%, and the broadcast error of each line is 2%. Soybean and corn: The error between actual sowing and planned sowing is Â±3%, the sowing rate for mechanical weeding or thinning plots is increased by 10% to 15%, the error between rows is Â±3%, and the sowing is even (continues more than the planned spacing) 2m is a broken bar). No more than one place per 5m.
2.11 Planting operations are suitable for field mechanical planting of tobacco seedlings and beet tubers. The quality standards are shown in Table 3.
Work item pitch uniform cover soil seedlings erect earth irrigation tobacco planting (irrigation)
The plant spacing is uniform, the error between the actual plant spacing and the theoretical plant spacing is Â±3%, and the error of each adjacent plant spacing is Â±2%. Cover soil tightly, the thickness is the same, the depth of the top surface of the nutrition bowl is less than 5%. After the planting, the tobacco seedlings shall stand upright without lodging, and the inclination angle of the seedling plant to the ground shall be â‰¤45Â°. The earth cultivators are made into small ridges on both sides of the tobacco seedlings, and the ridge height is not suitable for pressing the seedlings. The water supply per hole is adjusted within 1~1.5kg. The water supply per hole is even and the error is 0.25kg.
The beet planting technique has the same plant spacing and the error of the plant spacing is Â±2%. Heavy planting rate â‰¤ 10%, leakage planting rate â‰¥ 5%. Obstructed planting rate, lodging rate, injury rate was â‰¤ 5%.
2.12 Rice transplanting operations are suitable for the mechanical transplanting of rice seedlings.
2.12.1 Line spacing error is Â±1cm, convergence line spacing error is Â±3cm, and plant spacing error is Â±1cm.
2.12.2 The number of missing holes and full-draining holes is less than or equal to 3%, the number of scars and hooking lines is less than or equal to 1%, and the number of floating lines is less than or equal to 4%.
2.13 The plastic film covering operation is applicable to the plastic film covering operations of corn, sugar beet, flue-cured tobacco, vegetables, etc., and the joint operation with the plastic film covering operation project.
2.13.1 Ensure the quality of the site preparation and the surface is flat and free from defects.
2.13.2 Membrane surface compacted and compacted, no leakage, no wrinkle, no fracture, mechanical damage degree of the lighting surface â‰¤ 5cm/m2, smoothness of the lighting surface â‰¥ 98%.
2.13.3 Ensure that the width and thickness of the film cover soil, the width of the film cover soil 10cm, thickness 5cm, pass rate â‰¥ 95%, leakage of soil area <2%.
2.13.4 Corresponding pedestal position is accurate, the deviation is less than 4cm, the general ridge illumination width is â‰¥30cm, the corn ridge width is â‰¥45cm, and the width pass rate is â‰¥80%.
2.14 The cultivating and weeding operations are suitable for sod mowing and placing weeding and weeding operations. Job quality standards are shown in Table 4.
Quality Standard Work Items Soybean, Mongolian Soil, Soybean, Machinery, Weeding, Operating Time Soybean leaves were planted just before unfolding. During emergence to two true leaf stages, most of the weeds are in the white line stage and are individually carried out in the 2-leaf stage.
Cover soil thickness Weed Depth The Mongolian soil thickness is 2 ~ 3cm. The working depth of rotary burrs does not exceed the depth of sowing.
The rate of killing the grass and the rate of killing the grass is more than 80%.
The rate of injury is less than 2%. Herbicide rate >80%
The rate of injury is less than 5%.
Good soil loose soil between the seedlings without diameter> 10cm clods. Soil bulk density decreased by more than 15%.
When the work is not heavy, the work is not biased, and the ridges are not inclined. There are ploughing soils in the furrows. Do not miss the work, do not hang grass, do not delay.
2.15 Quality Standard Operating Project for Cultivated Top Soil Fertilizing Topdressing The first time of cultivating the seedlings during the corn millet stage was carried out after the seedlings were ridged and ridged until the first compound leaf was unfolded, the second time before the branching stage and the third time in the early flowering stage. The first cultivator was carried out at the 3-leaf stage, the second time after the fixed seedlings and the third before the jointing. The first time is not later than the 5-leaf stage, the second is not later than the 8-leaf stage, and the third is performed in the 11-12 stage.
Depth of tillage and soil depth The first tillage depth is more than 15cm, the soil does not exceed the number of sub-leaf marks, the second tillage depth is 10~12cm, and the cultivated soil does not exceed 10cm, and the soil does not exceed the first compound section. The depth of the hoeing depth is Â±2cm. The first ploughing depth is 14~16cm, there are ploughing soil, a small amount of cultivating ridges, the second ploughing depth is 12~16cm, there is soil to meet, the third ploughing depth is 10~12cm, there has been ploughing soil, earthing to corn Roots 8 to 10cm. The same depth, the error is Â± 2cm. The first plowing depth is 12 to 15cm. The furrows have plowing soil, and the second depth is 18 to 20cm. The furrows help to have floating soil. The furrows have been plowed and the third earthing height is 7 to 9cm. The depths of the radon are consistent and the error is Â±2cm.
The rate of weeding and injury rate of weeding: the first time> 70%, the second time> 85%, the third time> 95%. No seedlings, no pressure seedlings, all the cultivator injury rate is â‰¤ 1% each cultivator (combined with weeding between the plants) sterilized rate â‰¥ 80%, the operation is not partial phlegm, no pressure seedlings, no seedlings, each cultivator injury Rate â‰¤ 1%. According to the same standards as the implementation of soybeans.
The row spacing is the same as the row spacing of the ridges, and it is not biased and does not leak crops. The row error is Â±1cm and the land is neat. According to the same standards as the implementation of soybeans. According to the same standards as the implementation of soybeans.
It is suitable for middle-cultivation, weeding, earth-cultivation and top-dressing mechanical operations of medium-tillage crops such as soybeans, corn and millet. Job quality standards are shown in Table 5. table 5
2.16 The spraying operation is applicable to field mechanical spraying operations such as chemical weed control, pest control, and leaf surface spraying of micro fertilizers and growth regulators.
2.16.1 Calculate the dosage and the amount of liquid spray according to the agronomic requirements.
2.16.2 The amount of spray and the amount of liquid sprayed are accurate. The actual liquid ejection volume and the planned liquid ejection amount error â‰¤ 5%, and the liquid ejection amount error of each nozzle is â‰¤ 3%.
2.16.3 Uniform spraying, good atomization, no leakage of spray, the repeat width of adjacent nozzles is 5 to 15cm, and the width is the same, and the repetition width of reciprocating spray is â‰¤ 30cm.
2.16.4 For chemical weeding and spraying operations, according to the pesticides and herbicides, the grass-killing rate is not less than 80% to 90%, and the injury rate of mechanical work is â‰¤ 1%.
2.16.5 Before the chemical weeding sowing, the soil treatment, the spraying of mixed soils or the spraying of pesticides immediately followed by the mixing of the earth, the volatile pesticides with a photolysis depth of è€™lOcm, and the general pesticides with a depth of 2ï½ž3cm. After sowing and pre-emergence soil treatment, the mixed soil depth is shallower than the sowing depth, and no damage to the seedlings will occur.
2.16.6 Soybean and corn chemical weeding ridge seedlings were planted with pesticides, dried soil, sprayed with Mongolian soil, and repression joint operation with a cover soil thickness of 2 cm.
2.17 Sprinkler irrigation is suitable for sprinkling irrigation of wheat, soybeans, corn, and other crops using a sprinkler. The quality standards are shown in Table 6.
The quality standards of the project water spray of wheat, soybean, and corn were determined according to the drought conditions (soil level and crop growth) and the law of water requirement for growth and development at the time.
Seedling stage 10 ~ 15mm, three leaf stage 15 ~ 20mm, tiller - jointing period 30mm, heading 35mm. Branches - 30 mm flowering period, flowering - 30 to 40 mm scarring stage, 30 to 35 mm graining period. 15mm after sowing, 7-15 leaf stage, 15mm, 30mm after jointing, heading and flowering period 30-40mm.
Sprinkler irrigation intensity should be less than the soil infiltration rate, the principle of no runoff on the surface, no damage to the soil structure, no surface compaction.
A good atomization droplet diameter of 1 ~ 3.5mm.
Spray evenness â‰¥ 85%.
No leakage, no leakage, spraying repeatability 100 ~ 200cm.
2.18 The staged harvesting operation is applicable to the harvesting operations of wheat, rice, soybeans, and corn ear harvesting. Job quality standards are shown in Table 7.
Quality Standards Work Item Wheat Harvesting Rice Harvesting Soybean Harvesting Corn Ears Harvesting Period Mid- to late-season waxing. Harvested at the ripening stage, that is, the grain turns yellow, the moisture content is reduced to 17% to 20%, and the stem moisture content is 60% to 70%, which is suitable for the harvesting period. Soybean meal and beans began to return to the garden, 70% of fallen leaves, autumn rain, soil moisture should not be carried out. The water content of corn kernels dropped to 25% to 30%, and the plants fell to 5% or less. Cutting height In general, cutting height is 15~18cm. If the straw is chopped and returned to the field after harvesting, the cutting height is 20 to 25 cm. Cutting height 8-12cm. Cutting height is based on the thickness of the bottom. Cutting height â‰¤ 15cm. Lay out regularly, evenly into a fish scale. The laying angle is 45Â° to 75Â°, and the width is 100 to 140cm. It does not collapse and it does not fall. 90Â°Â±20Â° to the forward direction. The strips are placed at an angle of 30Â° with the working direction, and they are continuous and even. When they rain, they should be turned over and dried.
Loss of grain moisture content below 18% should be promptly received. Harvesting loss rate â‰¤ 1%, picking up loss rate â‰¤ 2%. Harvesting loss rate â‰¤ 1%. The moisture content of the seed is reduced to 15%. Picking harvest loss rate â‰¤ 1%. The loss rate of picking and plucking is â‰¤ 2%, the muddy flower bean rate is â‰¤ 3%, and the breakage rate is â‰¤ 1%. The ear drop rate was â‰¤ 3%, the drop loss rate was â‰¤ 2%, the grain breakage loss rate was â‰¤ 1.5%, and the net stripping rate was â‰¤ 7%.
2.19 Combine harvesting operations are suitable for joint harvesting of wheat, rice, soybeans and corn. Job quality is shown in Table 8.
Quality Standards Work Item Wheat Rice Soybean Corn Harvest Period Wax at the end of ripening to middle maturity. Harvested during ripening. In the yellow ripening period, at this time, all the leaves of the bean fall off, and the grains show a variety of color. More than 90% of the plants had fruit grains sclerotic, dark layers of embryos, and yellow leaves.
Cutting height 10 ~ 15cm10 ~ 15cm cut the bottom of the following shall prevail, generally 5 ~ 6cm. Cutting èŒ¬ high â‰¤15cm
Loss rate: Comprehensive loss rate of harvesting, threshing and cleaning â‰¤3%, grain breakage rate â‰¤ 1%, clean rate â‰¥95% Comprehensive loss rate of harvesting, threshing and cleaning â‰¤3%, grain breakage rate â‰¤2%, cleanliness rate â‰¥95% Comprehensive loss rate â‰¤ 3%, crushing rate â‰¤ 5%, muddy flowering bean rate â‰¤ 5%, clean rate â‰¥ 95% comprehensive loss rate â‰¤ 3%, broken rate â‰¤ 3%, clean rate â‰¥ 99%
2.20 Stalk rooting and returning operations are suitable for the operation of crushing and returning wheat, corn, stem cutting and returning corn and sorghum roots. See Table 9 for quality standards.
Quality standard work items Wheat straw shredded returning corn stalk shredded corn sorghum root shredded returning crushing length Stem cutting length â‰¤ 20cm, shredding pass rate â‰¥ 90%. Straw crushed, length â‰¤ 12cm, broken qualified rate â‰¥ 90%. Broken length â‰¤ 10cm, broken qualified rate â‰¥ 80%.
Fragmentation Sprinkle Width Sprinkling width is consistent with the cutting width and uniform. After the straw is broken, it should reach a soft, loose and non-cylindrical section. Sprinkle evenly. Clearance rate is â‰¥ 90%. Debris is evenly mixed in the soil and the soil coverage is â‰¥80%.
Shallow ploughing requires a depth of 8-12 cm. There is no soil in the plowed layer, and the maximum size of the soil is less than or equal to 4 cm.
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