In order to reduce the occurrence of oscillations and noise in the hydraulic system of CNC machine tools and prevent the expansion of noise, prevention and improvement should be done in the following aspects:
(I) Improvement of hydraulic system structure
In the process of controlling the hydraulic system of CNC machine tools, attention should be paid to the use of low-noise hydraulic components. After research, it was found that most of the old hydraulic pumps are mainly piston pumps or gear pumps. Their noise oscillation and noise are much larger than those of vane pumps. The extra pressure is also very high. Therefore, many pistons or gear pumps are still used in the hydraulic system of CNC machine tools. To meet this condition, it is necessary to improve the pressure of the vane pump, and at least ensure that the extra pressure is about 20 MPa to reduce the oscillation. With noise. Second, control the number of hydraulic pumps. After investigation, it was found that in the situation where the number of hydraulic pumps is reduced, the oscillation and noise will be reduced. Therefore, it is necessary to control the number of hydraulic pumps. In the traditional hydraulic system, multiple hydraulic pumps are required to regulate the flow and pressure to ensure hydraulic pressure. The pump flow and pressure can adjust the pressure and flow in proportion to reduce the number of hydraulic pumps. In addition, when the accumulator is used, it is easy to present noise under the effect of pressure pulsation, and the accumulator can be used to eliminate noise. Although the accumulator has a small capacity, its inertia is relatively small, and the response is also very low. In the process of using accumulators, it is necessary to control the frequency of the accumulator in the tens of hertz in order to reduce the pressure pulsation. In the end, the damper and filter settings are well established. In general, there are many ways to use a damper. The available dampers include high-frequency pressure dampers and micro-perforated dampers. The common filters used in practice are hydraulic filters. The use of these devices minimizes oscillation and noise.
(B) Improvement of Hydraulic Equipment Equipment Methods
In order to do oscillation and noise control, we also need to further improve the hydraulic equipment and equipment. We can start from the following two aspects: First, the appropriate hydraulic pump equipment. In the process of equipment hydraulic pump and motor, it should be ensured that the axial error of both will not exceed 0.02mm, and the flexible coupling will be used during the process. In the process of the equipment hydraulic pump, if the pump and the motor equipment are on the fuel tank cover, then the need for good anti-vibration data and noise reduction data on the fuel tank cover can be combined with practice, and the oil absorption height and the oil absorption density can be better. During the use of the equipment, as long as this talent can ensure a reasonable plan. Second, pipeline equipment. Doing pipeline work well is also a very important task. In order to prevent vibration and eliminate noise, it is possible to use hoses to complete the connection, and appropriately shorten the length of the pipeline, improve the rigidity of the pipeline, and prevent the occurrence of resonant resonance between the pipelines. Together, during the sealing process, straight seals should be used. For valve components, attention should be paid to the use of springs in practice, and attention should be paid to the use of seals to prevent oscillations in tubing caused by noisy air. noise. In addition, the bending of the pipe must be controlled to a maximum of 30 degrees, and the radius of curvature of the elbow should be more than five times the pipe diameter.
(c) Selection of suitable oil
In the process of hydraulic system oscillation and noise prevention, we must pay attention to the choice of oil and prevent the oil from being contaminated. In the process of selecting the oil, it is necessary to prevent the selection of the oil with high viscosity. If such oil is used, the hydraulic pump will inevitably bring a large suction resistance, which will cause noise, so the oil should be manipulated. The liquid viscosity ensures that the oil has good defoaming abilities. Although such an approach requires a lot of capital investment, it has a good after-effect, not only extending the operating life of the equipment, but also reducing the damage to hydraulic pumps and components. After the study found that the anti-wear hydraulic oil has a higher freezing point and the overall effect is better. Therefore, it is better to choose anti-wear hydraulic oil. Together, no matter how good the oil is contaminated, it will not be able to play a useful role. Once the oil is contaminated, it will cause the filter screen inside the fuel tank to become blocked. It will also cause the oil pump to fail to absorb oil smoothly and affect the return oil. , And bring noise and vibration, in response to this situation, the relevant staff often wash the fuel tank, in the process of oil injection can use the filter or filter, so that the oil can be filtered again, improve the oil Quality, but also set the separator at the bottom of the oil, under the effect of the separator, the oil in the oil return area will leave the impurities in the oil return area under the effect of deposition, which can effectively prevent the oil from flowing back. Into the suction area.
(D) prevent hydraulic shock
In the process of preventing hydraulic shock, it can be started from the following two aspects: First, the hydraulic shock when the valve suddenly closes. In the process of solving such problems, the closing speed of the directional valve should be appropriately lowered. Following the decrease of the closing speed of the directional valve, the commutation time will be increased. When the commutation time of the brake is higher than 0.2s, the impact pressure will be As a result, the directional valve with adjustability can be used in the hydraulic system. Since the flow rate is also a factor in the onset of oscillation and noise, it is also necessary to control the flow rate in the process of preventing the hydraulic shock. It is better to control the flow rate of the pipeline below 4.5 m/s. Control the length of the pipe together, try not to pick the pipe with the camber, and use the hose as the primary pipe. To minimize hydraulic shock, it is best to properly control the liquid flow rate before the slide valve is closed. This is also a useful way to reduce hydraulic shock. Second, hydraulic shocks occur when the moving parts are braked and decelerated. In the prevention and control of such impacts, it is important to be able to set up a safety valve with good repercussions and good flexibility at the inlet and outlet of the hydraulic cylinder. It is better to use a direct acting safety valve and control its pressure as long as it can prevent pressure. Excessive impact. Second, the use of slow-down valve as a point of use, in order to prevent the closure of the oil line is too slow to bring about unnecessary impact, together also control the speed of moving parts, its speed should be controlled at 10m per minute or less. Furthermore, in order to prevent the hydraulic shock from being excessively large, it is better to set a certain buffering device on the upper part of the hydraulic cylinder. This not only can prevent the oil discharge speed in the hydraulic cylinder from being too fast, but also can control the operation speed of the hydraulic cylinder to prevent excessive shock. In addition, the balance valve and back pressure valve are also well-equipped in the hydraulic cylinder. This not only can reduce the hydraulic movement speed to the greatest extent, but also can effectively prevent the forward stroke, which is also a useful way to increase the back pressure. In the end, it is necessary to use a directional valve with a damping effect during which the main damping is mainly used, and the one-way throttle valve is closed, and the smooth pressure is controlled so as to prevent the smooth pressure from being excessively high. In the process of reducing hydraulic shocks, it is also necessary to control the voidage of the hydraulic cylinder to prevent excessive voidage or unreasonable seals from affecting the normal operation of the hydraulic system. To prevent the occurrence of such events, it is better to use a new piston. Good and suitable seals, as long as this prevents the onset of adverse events.
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2.Choose the qualified raw material and do incoming test, not allowed
nonconforming material to enter into production process;
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5.Do the final inspection to ensure 100% of pass.
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