Anti-drought Cultivation Techniques of 13 Crops in Guangxi

I. Rice

(1) Select drought-tolerant rice varieties. Generally, upland rice is more drought-tolerant than common rice varieties. Large- and low-sorghum varieties are more resistant to drought than drought-resistant varieties; hybrids are more resistant to drought than conventional ones. Localities must adopt conditions suitable to local conditions to select suitable rice for root development, strong drought tolerance, and suitable growth period. Variety.

(B) the implementation of centralized and continuous education. The selection of near-water sources for intensive breeding is convenient for technical guidance, and it is beneficial for cultivating more and more sturdy and strong ploughs, and can be used to control water and concentrate water.

(3) To promote the technology of dry seedlings in woven cloth compartments. The gauze with good permeability or the water-permeable and permeable woven cloth is used for dry seedlings in the barrier layer. The quality of the seedlings is good, the age of the seedlings is flexible, and the seedlings are easily transported and transported, and the seedlings are thrown quickly. The operation is simple and convenient. , seeds, and labor.

(4) To promote new technologies for no-tillage and drought-cultivation of rice. It refers to a new rice cultivation technique that uses a natural rainfall or watering method to manage seedlings without direct ploughshare in rice fields under drought and water shortage.

(five) straw cover cultivation. After the rice is broadcast live, evenly covering the straw or even transplanting the straw between the rows will reduce the evaporation of soil moisture and prevent the growth of weeds. Before covering the straw, the live car should be irrigated, and the transplant should be filled with water.

(6) Chemical regulation and extension of ageing technology. On the basis of dry seeding and thinning seeding, according to seedling growth and drought conditions, 1 to 2 paclobutrazols were sprayed after the 3-leaf stage, and 15% paclobutrazol wettable powder was evenly sprayed to 50 kg per mu to promote control. Long, Shi Shixiang surface water, after the second day of irrigation and then irrigation tank. The same age can extend the age of more than 10 days.

(7) Datian water-saving and drought-resistant technologies. One is to increase organic fertilizer. The second is timely cultivation and weeding. Third, spraying transpiration agent. The fourth is to use water vapor balance water-saving irrigation technology.

Second, corn

(a) Drought-resistant sowing. 1. No-till straw mulching sowing. Firstly, dig planting holes according to the planting scale, put basal fertilizer on top of it, top it up with water and fertilizer, sow 2 seeds on the side of the fertilizer, and cover the rows of straw after lightly covering the soil, so as to maintain the soil moisture and ensure the moisture needed for corn emergence. 2. Uniform sowing and transplanting. Concentrate the seedlings in a place convenient for watering, and transplant them to Daejeon after the rain. 3. soaking sowing. The corn seeds are first soaked in water and soaked into the soil after the seeds have absorbed water.

(b) Measures for drought protection and seedling protection. First, there are places where water and electricity are available. The second is the combined application of seedling fertilizer, water and fertilizer in the next to the seedlings, can effectively add water. The third is to cover crop straw. The straw and litter of the crop are laid between rows of corn to reduce the evaporation of moisture and maintain the surface humidity.

Third, potato

The current potato is affected by prolonged dry weather, which may lead to shortening the growth period, lack of plant photosynthetic capacity, affecting tuber formation and enlargement, increasing the number of bad potatoes, and decreasing yield and quality.

(1) Through measures such as pumping wells, pumping water from rivers, etc., make use of all available water sources, promptly irrigate and keep the soil environment in the roots moist.

(b) Adopt water-saving irrigation technologies such as sprinkler irrigation, wet irrigation and drip irrigation.

(3) When ditching irrigation, only half ditch water can be irrigated, and flood irrigation can not be conducted. It is necessary to timely drain and dry it so as not to affect the normal growth of the root system and the mashing of the mash.

Fourth, soybean

(a) Use drought-resistant, dry-ripened varieties. For example, the new spring soybean variety Guichun No. 8 and the summer soybean variety Guixia No. 3, which were bred by the Guangxi Maize Research Institute, were included.

(2) Adding organic fertilizer: Applying sufficient organic fertilizer on the dry land can reduce water use by 50% to 60%. Vigorously implement straw return technology and reasonably apply fertilizer.

(3) Drought prevention and soil conservation: Conservation of soil moisture by cultivator and repression.

(d) cover the insurance: First, film coverage. Application on spring sowing crops can warm up and protect the spring drought. The second is straw coverage. The crop stalks will be crushed and evenly spread over the rows of crops or fruit trees in order to preserve the crop.

(e) Follow the principle of immature soil or little earth moving in spring. The original ridge was not planted on plots that had not been prepared for autumn, and the ridged plots were not ridged or flattened in close quarters.

(6) Chemical regulation of drought prevention measures. 1. Water-retaining agent: The water-retaining agent is used as a seed coating, a root of a seedling, or a ditch, a hole, or a ground spray and applied directly to the soil. 2. Drought-Resistant Agent: Spraying 1 time for 10-15 days, effective against seasonal drought and hot dry wind. It can also be used as seed dressing, soaking, root irrigating and rooting, to increase seed germination rate and survival rate.
V. Rape

(a) watering drought. Ditch irrigation in dry rice fields should be avoided. Flooding should be avoided and combined with fertilization. In drylands where water diversion is more difficult, it is necessary to carry water and resist drought.

(b) Ground cover. In general, side stalks of rice straw, corn stalks, sugar cane leaves and other crop stalks are covered in the inter-row trenches, covering an amount of 1500-2000 kg/hm2 and a uniform thickness of about 2 cm. Sprinkle some fine soil on them to prevent wind blows.

(C) cultivation fertilizer. Take advantage of the favorable opportunity of irrigation or rainfall, combined with cultivator, and acre 10-12 kg of compound fertilizer; if the drought continues, artificial foliar spray 0.5% urea, 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 0.1% borax mixture should be taken. 2-3 times, every 5-7 days. The cultivating should be carried out when the temperature is high and the soil moisture is good after irrigation, which will help increase the soil temperature and accelerate the birth process.

(d) Control of pests and diseases. The pests and diseases of rape in early spring are mainly aphids and sclerotia, which can be combined with drought resistance. Each lore is treated with 100 grams of dimethoate, imidacloprid, and other chemicals to control 30 kg of uniform spray.

Sixth, sugar cane

(a) Select improved varieties. The use of Taiwan Youyu, Xintai sugar 25 and other drought-resistant high-yield varieties.

(b) Mechanical deep plowing and deep loosening. Deep plowing 35-45 cm deep with high-powered tractors can increase the amount of water stored after the rain and the moisture does not easily evaporate. Deep-groove flat-bottom planting is adopted, and the soil for soil preparation is finely crushed to enhance the water retention capacity of the soil and to facilitate the growth of the roots of the cane and the germination of the shoots.

(c) The following water conservation techniques. 1. Add organic fertilizer. 2. Use fresh stems or shoots of stems, soak in the seeds, and apply water afterwards. 3. The use of cane tip (tail) stripping leaves (sheaths) does not cut down seeding techniques. 4. Newly planted sugarcane under the planting ditch cover covering sugarcane species.

(D) Comprehensive drought control measures: 1. "Three wet" (seedling wet, wet fertilizer, planting ditch wet) under the seed, after the rain cultivating loose soil, sealed ditch storage. 2. Use autumn and winter planting to manage fertilization in advance and seal it early to prevent surface water loss. 3. Covered with plastic film or sugarcane leaf. 4. Expand the application area of ​​sugar cane technology for spraying alcohol waste. 5. Rational interplanting. 6. The lack of severe seedlings can be used to reduce the size of the plants.

Seven vegetables

(1) Choose drought-resistant, fast-growing, and disease-resistant varieties to cultivate strong seedlings.

(2) Vigorously promote the use of "three avoidance" technologies, use plastic film and straw mulching techniques, and reduce soil moisture evaporation. Promote the use of domestic anti-drought agents and water retention agents to increase soil water storage capacity and reduce crop transpiration.

(C) Rational application of chemical fertilizers. Apply organic manure, vigorously implement straw returning technology, apply biogas liquid, improve soil drought resistance, deepen deep tillage, and increase soil water storage capacity. For a vegetable field with irrigation water, it should be changed to intermittent watering.

(d) Tried to implement water saving and film conservation technology. The mulch is laid flat in the middle or in the ditch, and the ridges and ridges are covered by the mulch. The mulching film is used to transport water. The vegetables are infiltrated into the holes through the seedling hole and professional irrigation hole of the crop.

(5) Apply water saving techniques such as drip irrigation and micro-spraying to promote the “micro-storage and micro-irrigation” technology in the high mountain areas, and transport the water directly to the vicinity of the affected root system. It is very suitable for the growth of solanaceous vegetables and has a water use efficiency of more than 90%. Micro-spraying is suitable for the growth of leafy vegetables such as cabbage, celery, and edible fungus, as well as vegetable seedlings.

Eight, edible mushrooms

At present, the main varieties cultivated by edible fungus in our district are bifido mushroom, oyster mushroom, shiitake mushroom, edible fungus, golden needle mushroom and so on. The production water demand is not large, but extremely high temperature of drought may affect the production of edible fungi.

(a) pay attention to the location of the production site. The site should be located as close to the water source as possible, and the water diversion and spray irrigation facilities should be constructed to accumulate rainwater and spring water. Daily cultivation should save water and spray and drip irrigation should be adopted. Mushroom construction should be conducive to heat preservation and moisturizing.

(b) Scientific vaccination. Inoculation of acupuncture points deepens the filling of bacteria, which is conducive to enhancing drought resistance and reducing the external temperature difference to the stimulation of the bottom species of seed holes. The survival rate is improved.

(3) Distributing and moving piles in due course. Transfer the fungus rods from places with higher temperatures to downstairs, mud rooms and well-ventilated rooms. Pay attention to stacking and stacking with triangles or wells to reduce the number of layers of bacteria sticks and maintain indoor ventilation. It is best to carry out piles and piles in the evening.

(D) shade, ventilation. Every night from 8pm to 7pm, the room is forced to ventilate, try to keep the room temperature below 33°C, avoid room temperature above 33°C for more than 2-3 hours, and control the relative air humidity to 70%. about.

(e) Correct handling of rotten bars. Found that there are rotten rods, bacteria infected immediately picked out concentrated, do not arbitrarily discard, so as not to infect each other and pollute the environment.

(vi) Reuse of culture materials. Rotten rods, which are also better in the texture of the culture materials, can be exposed to sunlight and reused to produce mushrooms, coprinus comatus, or other high-temperature varieties.
Nine, cassava

(I) Popularize plastic film cultivation. After rainfall, soil preparation and soil moisture were planted according to conventional methods. After the soil was covered and covered with soil, the soil was covered with a strip of soil and the soil was compacted by the membrane. The cassava ruptured immediately after emergence. The cultivars of cultivar watermelon intercropping can be used to interpolate cassava seed stems at the edge of the mulching film.

(b) Planting at a proper time. If there is a serious drought and there is no possibility of irrigation, do not rush to plant and prevent the dehydration and necrosis in the dry soil after cutting off the stems. The cassava field that has already been planted will be watered to protect the seedlings in case of drought.

(C) do a good job in the protection of cassava stems. Do not rush to expose exposed stems before planting in the cellar. Do not rush to expose exposed stems. Store stems in open field. Pay attention to moisturizing in windy and dry weather, cover with straw or film on top, and regularly splash water when necessary to prevent water loss.

Ten fruit trees

(1) Citrus: In the southern part of the flowering season, the northern part has budding, and the flowering volume is generally too large. Severe drought will affect the development of the flower organ and pollination and fertilization. It is necessary to pour water properly and cover the plate to moisturize after the water is poured.

(B) Bananas: Most of the old banana planter's sucker seedlings have about 10 leaves. Drought will affect the normal growth of bananas. When the drought occurs in the banana plant garden, the banana seedlings should be promptly sprayed, watered, and kept moist. For newly planted fruit gardens that use the “three avoidance” technique to get through the winter, the film covering the banana seedlings should be opened in time to avoid high-temperature burns, and the replanting of the banana seedlings burned at high temperature should be promptly replanted.

(C) litchi, longan: Although the drought can prevent red shoots, but it will also affect the development of the flower, especially high temperatures tend to reduce the proportion of male and female flowers, so in the case of high temperature and dry weather, it is necessary to appropriate irrigation, with spikes , with litchi longan leaflet atrophy exfoliant shoot spray spike.

(D) Mango: high temperature and drought, sunny, is conducive to flowering pollination, insemination of mangoes, but beware of too much drought caused by mango abortion, so in the case of hot and dry weather, it is necessary to appropriate irrigation, and pay attention to the tree plate moisturizing.

(5) Deciduous fruit trees such as plum, peach, pear, plum, etc.: High temperature and drought in early spring, with sufficient sunshine, conducive to flowering, pollination and insemination of deciduous fruit trees such as peach, plum, plum, etc., but timely irrigation of water after Xiehua, avoiding excessive drought and falling fruit .

(6) Drought prevention measures for new kinds of orchards: First, except for leaving a small number of branches and leaves as pumping foliage, the excess branches and leaves should be cut off to reduce the evaporation of water in the trees; secondly, regular root water should be injected to ensure that the roots of trees are tightly integrated with the soil. Cover 8-12cm in the tree tray to reduce moisture evaporation.

Eleventh, tea garden

(a) cover the grass. The grass is planted on both sides of the tea tree. The grass source is straw-based and the grass cover is better. Grass thickness 8-10 cm.

(b) Appropriate fertilization. Especially young tea plantations. Fertilizers are best used for biogas slurry application, but 0.5% urea or 0.5% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution can also be used for extra-root fertilizer.

(3) Picking in time to reduce the water consumption of shoots and pay attention to keeping the leaves and trees.

(D) Tea farms planned to be cut in spring should be put on hold until the drought conditions are fully relieved and the spring tea is trimmed.

(5) Tea garden irrigation: Tea gardens with original irrigation conditions can be irrigated and drought-fighted. The irrigation volume should be determined according to the weather conditions and the tea tree water requirement. Tea gardens without irrigation facilities should organize deployment equipment and actively use state agricultural machinery subsidies to purchase tea garden irrigation equipment.

(6) Shallow plough weeding. Timely weeding can reduce surface water evaporation. Avoid deep plowing in tea gardens during dry seasons, so as not to cause tea trees (especially young) to suffer sudden water loss and death due to root injury.

XII. Techniques for controlling diseases and insect pests in arid areas

At present, we must do a good job of prevention and control of vegetables, orchards, sugarcane pests and diseases, as well as rodent pests, spring seed sow disinfection.

(i) Scientific irrigation and control of field water balance. When irrigation (leaching) water is used for drought protection and seedling protection, it is necessary to prevent long-term accumulation of water in the ditch or car, control the balance of moisture, and reduce the favorable conditions for the occurrence of germs. Drip irrigation may be used in places where conditions permit.

(b) Strengthen field management. The orchards and ratoon cane are used in conjunction with fertilization to deepen the garden and eliminate overwintering pests such as cockroaches, beetles, golden needles, ground tigers, black caterpillars, and roundworms. Citrus garden complexes with flowers before cutting, cutting off dead branches, eggs, such as ulcers, anthrax branches, damaging branches of Tianni and so on. Serious pests and diseases of vegetables, mulberry gardens should also promptly remove pests and leaves, reduce the number of field insects.

(C) promote the application of new technologies for physical prevention and control. Application of frequency-type insecticidal lamp to trap and kill locusts, long-horned beetles, and sugarcane turtles, application of colored worm boards to control locusts, thrips, and sex attractants to trap and kill vegetable pests such as diamondback moth, Spodoptera litura, and fruit-bearing fruit flies. "Technology controls rodents.

(d) Spring irrigation. The conditional area is controlled in the first 5-7 days before overwintering maggot emergence, flooding inundation of rice roots for 3 days; winter cultivating green fertilizer field 2-3 times in leaching water and ploughing fields to burn and burn the residue, which can effectively reduce Rhizoctonia solani nuclear base number.

(e) Chemical control. Combining with the actual situation in the local area, according to the pest information and prevention advice of the local agricultural plant protection (agrotechnical) sector or the prevention and control under the guidance of the plant protection technicians, select appropriate counterparts, timely spray pesticides for high-efficiency pesticides, pay attention to scientific and safe use of drugs, and prohibit the use of countries. Highly toxic pesticides that are explicitly prohibited.

XIII. Rice and maize drought-resistant varieties

(a) Rice

1. Peigui Guihan No. 1. It is a temperature-sensitive two-line hybrid rice planted in Dahua, Liuzhou, and Nanning. The whole growth period is 130-150 days, and the early rice planting period in south Guangxi is about 123 days. The main performance: tight plant type beam, Ye Ting, strong tiller, spike large grain, ripening, better color change, easier to drop. The seedling drought resistance index was 64.9 (level 5), and the drought resistance index at the spike stage was 0.95 (level 5). General production of about 400 kilograms. It can be planted in the south, middle and long-term rice areas of Guangxi in the early, late and middle rice areas.

2. Dry You 3. It is a temperature-sensitive three-line hybrid rice. The growth period of the early rice in Guinan and Guizhong is about 127 days. It was 6 days later than Zhonghan 3 on the control. The late growth period of late rice planting in south Guangxi was about 118 days, which was 5 days later than the control drought. Drought resistance level 3. General production of about 400 kilograms. It can be planted in the rice cultivation area of ​​south Guangxi as early and late rice, and in the area of ​​middle and long-lasting rice in Guangxi as a single-season early rice or a region accustomed to planting dry rice.

(b) Corn

1. Zhengda 619. The variety is sown in spring for 130 days. The plant type is loose, the leaves are flat, the aerial root is developed, and the lodging resistance is strong. Generally, the per mu yield is 450-550 kilograms. Planting can be promoted throughout the region.

2. Decathlon 007. The variety is planted in Nanning for 117 days in the whole growth period and 97 days in autumn. The seedling is strong, the leaves are obliquely spread, the stalks are hard, the roots are well developed, and they are resistant to drought and drought. When mature, the stalks are green. High resistance to large, small spot, resistant to sheath blight, smut, bacterial wilt. General yield of 450-550 kg per mu. Can be planted throughout Guangxi.

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